ACADEMIC WRITING

  1. One Work by One Author

Direct Quotation:

“A text can be defined as an actual language, as distinct from a sentence which is an abstract unit of linguistic analysis” (Widdowson, 2011, p. 4).

Paraphrase:

A text is an actual languange. It is an abstract unit of linguistic analysis which is different from a sentence (Widdowson, 2011).

 

  1. One Work by Two Authors

Direct Quotation:

“Interlanguage is the”language of the learner,” a system in development and not yet a totally accurate approximation of native speaker language” (Shrum & Glisan, 2000. p. 6).

Paraphrase:

Interlanguage can be called as the language of the learner. A system in development that native speaker language has not completely accurate yet (Shrum & Glisan, 2000).

 

  1. One Work by Multiple Authors

Direct Quotation:

Hammond, Burns, Joyce, Brosnan, and Gerot (1992) noted “Assessment is integral to each aspect of the program planning process and teachers need to make ongoing assessments of their learners’ progress as part of the planning of an effective literacy program” (p. 24).

Paraphrase:

Assessment is needed for teachers as part of the program learners’ progress (Hammond, Burns, Joyce, Brosnan, & Gerot, 1992).

 

  1. Group as Authors

Direct Quotation:

“The reading subtest is in some ways a traditional test of reading, but the materials are nearly all adaptations of authenthic materials” (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language [TESOL], 2003, p. 33).

Paraphrase:

The reading subtest is a traditional test of reading which the materials adapted from authentic materials (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Language [TESOL], 2003).

 

  1. Authors with The Same Surname

Direct Quotation:

“Small talk is informal conversations. It is useful in business and social situations when you are introduced to someone for the first time or meet someone that you do not know well” (I. Barrall; N. Barrall, 2006).

Paraphrase:

Small talk is useful in business and social situations when you meet someone for the first time (I. Barrall; N. Barrall, 2006).

 

  1. Secondary Sources

Direct Quotation:

“A test item is each testing point in a test which is given a separate mark or marks” (The Multilingual Glossary of Language Testing Terms [ALTE], 1998 (as cited in Brown, 2005, p. 41)).

Paraphrase:

A test item is a separate mark or marks in a test (The Multilingual Glossary of Language Testing Terms [ALTE], 1998 (as cited in Brown, 2005)).

 

  1. Classical Work

Direct Quotation:

“And of all things we created two mates; perhaps you will remember” ( The Quran 51:49).

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